Supporting children with special educational needs (SEN)
If a child has a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for them, they are termed as having 'special educational needs and disabilities' (SEND).
Local authorities (LAs) are responsible for identifying and meeting a child's special educational needs. The stages in identifying and meeting different levels of special educational needs are set out in the Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) Code of Practice (link to PDF on UK Government website).
Schools and local authorities (LAs) must follow the guidance given in the Code of Practice.
Information, advice and support services
Local authorities should provide information, advice and support to parents through a dedicated and easily identifiable service. Local authorities will have established Information, Advice and Support Services (formerly known as Parent Partnership services) to provide information, advice and support to parents in relation to SEND.
Information, Advice and Support Services should be impartial, confidential and accessible and should have the capacity to handle face-to-face, telephone and electronic enquiries.
More information about local Information, advice and support services is available on the Council for Disabled Children’s website.
Statutory assessment and Education, Health and Care plans
If a child's special needs cannot be met by a mainstream school with support, there is a formal process of statutory assessment. For most children, this will happen before school entry.
For more information or to apply for an assessment of the special educational needs of your child, please visit the GOV.UK website.
Following assessment, the local authority may issue an Education, Health and Care plan (EHC plan). This is a legal document that details the child's needs, the provision required to meet those needs and the school or other setting responsible for the child. Parents can contribute to the EHC plan by:
- Providing information
- Naming other professionals who should be consulted
- Discussing a draft of the statement with the LA
- Commenting on the draft plan
Read our information on how to secure effective SEND support for deafblind children and young people.
Information on initial identification and assessment of deafblindness is also available on this website.
Targets and reviews
EHC plans must be reviewed at least annually - possibly more often if, for example, the child's needs are changing rapidly. Parents and involved professionals must be included in the review.
After each review, the local authority decides whether any changes to the EHC plan are required. From Year 9 (age 14) onwards, the annual review must develop the child's transition plan which covers their move from school to post-school provision.
Disagreements between parents and LAs
If parents disagree with local authority decisions, they can use a disagreement resolution service and / or appeal formally against decisions to the SEND tribunal. They can appeal if the local authority:
- Refuses to assess their child
- Refuses to issue an EHC plan
- Decides to stop maintaining the EHC plan
Parents can appeal if they disagree with the content of the EHC plan. Further information about SEN tribunals are available on the SEN tribunal's website.
Choice of school
There is a range of types of provision. Parents have a right to state a preference for a particular school for their child, which may be either a mainstream or a special school. Children's own views should also be taken into account.
If parents choose a maintained (state) school, the local authority must agree that the school is suitable. Children can only attend non-maintained (independent) schools or those run by other LAs if their own LA agrees to fund them, or their parents pay the costs.
Parents can educate children at home if they wish, providing the LA agrees that the child's special educational needs are being met, but the local authority does not have any financial obligations towards children educated at home.
Increasing numbers of children with special educational needs are educated in mainstream schools with support. This policy (inclusion) aims to combat discrimination against people with disabilities and to include them fully in society.
Parents should choose the educational setting they feel will be best for their child and may feel that their child will receive a more appropriate education in specialist provision.
Inclusion for children who are deafblind may also mean education with children with other disabilities (for example, single-sensory impairments).
For children, successful inclusion depends on the child's needs, abilities, interests and personality, the resources provided (particularly staffing levels and training of staff) and the attitudes of staff and other pupils.
Further information and advice
- The Department for Education publishes a useful booklet called Special Educational Needs (SEN): A Guide for Parents and Carers
- Advisory Centre for Education (ACE)
- Independent Parental Special Education Advice (IPSEA)
- The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education
First published: Friday 1 June 2012
Updated: Monday 13 April 2015